The French National Assembly has begun a marathon debate on legalising same-sex marriage after months of public protests and counter-protests.
The bill, promised by President Francois Hollande during his election campaign last year, allows for same-sex marriage and adoption by gay parents.
Mr Hollande's Socialists and their allies command enough parliamentary support to see it through.
However, opponents have outnumbered supporters at recent demonstrations.
Between 340,000 and 800,000 people surged into Paris on 13 January for a rally against gay marriage, compared to between 125,000 and 400,000 who turned out on Sunday to support the bill.
The size of popular opposition and slickness of the "anti" campaign have surprised many, correspondents say.
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